The Spectrum of Oral Pathology Specimens: A Histopathologic Analysis of 442 Specimens
Keywords:Oral mass, pathology, odontogenic, oral cancer, salivary gland tumors, prevalence
Background Aims: Diseases of the oral cavity are heterogenous regarding their etiology, pathogenesis, histogenesis and clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine the frequency of oral diseases encountered in our experience.
Methods: The archives of pathology at Jordan University Hospital were retrospectively searched for oral cavity specimens from 2013–2020. Fisher’s exact test was performed to examine the statistical difference between the pathologic diagnosis and clinical variables. One-way ANOVA was used to analyze the differences in the mean of age between the different pathologic groups.
Results: A total of four-hundred and forty-two cases were retrieved. There were 232 (52%) females and 210 (48%) males, ranging in age from 3–87 years (mean 43). Inflammatory and reactive diseases were the most common, constituting 147 (33%) of all specimens, followed by 139 (31%) benign neoplasms, 114 (26%) cysts, and 42 (10%) malignant diseases. Lichen planus was the most common inflammatory disease (26/147, 18%) in patients older than 40 (p=0.0039). Keratocysts predominated in children and adolescents more than adults (p=0.0015). Buccal mucosa represented the most frequent site for biopsy (76, 17%), followed by tongue and maxillary bone, respectively at 70 (16%) each.
Conclusion: Inflammatory and benign neoplasms were the most common lesions in oral diseases. Oral malignancy appeared in low to intermediate frequency compared to previous reports. The study provides a general overview of the spectrum of oral pathology specimens and points to some novel epidemiologic findings that suggest further investigation.