Jordan Journal of Agricultural Sciences <p style="text-align: justify;"><em><strong>The Jordan Journal of Agricultural Sciences (JJAS)</strong></em> is an international double-blind peer-refereed, open-access journal publication sponsored by the Scientific Research and Innovation Support Fund/ Jordan Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research and housed at the Deanship of Scientific Research/ the University of Jordan. The JJAS is the official journal of the University of Jordan and the continuation of Dirasat: Agricultural Sciences. The JJAS is dedicated to achieving the highest standards and requirements of scientific research in agriculture and allied sciences, publishing articles that will benefit academics and practitioners of agriculture, and contributing to the body of accumulated knowledge, both locally and globally. The JJAS is also committed to upholding the highest standards of publication ethics and taking all possible measures against publication malpractices. The authors certify that the submitted articles represent their contributions and have not been copied or plagiarized in whole or in part from other works. The authors acknowledge that they have disclosed all or any actual or potential conflicts of interest associated with their articles. The journal is committed to an objective and fair peer-review of the submitted works for publication and to preventing any actual or potential conflict of interests among the editorial staff, reviewers, and the reviewed material. Any departure from the rules defined above is reported directly to the Editor-in-Chief, who is unequivocally committed to providing prompt solutions to any of these types of issues.</p> Deanship of Scientific Research, University of Jordan en-US Jordan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 1815-8625 <ul> <li class="show"> <p>This is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.</p> </li> </ul> Estimating Economic Returns of Sheep and Goat Rearing in Karak Governorate <p>This study aims to estimate the economic returns of sheep and goat rearing as well as total cost and returns to identify the profit margin made by out each farmer. The random sample consists of 196 breeders who breed 58240, sheep and goats in the Karak governorate of Jordan. The sample represents 13% of the total sheep and goat population (445300) in Karak. The primary data were collected through personal interviews with farmers using a questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed to achieve the study objectives and consisted of three themes. The first theme was questioning the variables that relate to the farmer’s personal characteristics (demography). The second theme contains a set of questions regarding financial production cost and return parameters during the milking season including the marketing process. The third theme consists of information about the return from selling individual sheep and goats and products such as wool and manure. The collected data from the questionnaire were statistically analyzed following Likert 5 Scale The financial analysis was conducted using Gross margin analysis. The findings of the analysis show that 52.6% of farmers were above 50 years old. the average size of the herd was 297. The variable cost for the herd was 13067.98, Jordanian Dinar, while the total returns were 17104.54, JOD, and the Gross margin ratio was 0.23599. The amount of milk production was (3,494.4) tons in a season lasting 3 months on average. The average prices of milk of goats and sheep are 1.1 and 0.87 JOD/kg, respectively, Moreover, 53.3% of the farmers processed the domestically produced milk into Jameed, butter, and margarine. The result of the analysis of gross margin was 30%, indicating the sheep and goats rearing projects make profits in Karak Governorate. The study recommends that a national program should be developed to maintain local breeds, set appropriate standards, and define trademarks for the local production of Jameed and domestic margarine.</p> Mohammed Ali Bdour Ayman Frid Zyadeen Nayl Twfiq Alkawalit Copyright (c) 2023 DSR Publishers/The University of Jordan. All Rights Reserved 2023-07-16 2023-07-16 19 2 142 152 10.35516/jjas.v19i2.1428 Effect of Supplemental Irrigation on Wheat Performance Grown in Semi-Arid Environment <p>This study was carried out to determine the effects of different supplemental irrigation (SI) treatments on yield, yield components, and some drought-related traits in eight wheat varieties grown in the semi-arid environment of Jordan. Two SI treatments were used in addition to the control (i.e. rainfed treatment with 262.8mm accumulated rains): partially SI treatment (PSI=262.8mm rains+220mm irrigation at anthesis stage) and continuous SI treatment (CSI= 262.8mm rains + 377.5mm at 2-3 weeks intervals during different stages of wheat growth). Seven durum wheat varieties; namely Sham1, Omqais, Acsad65, Bani Suef6, Bani Suef4, Horani Nawawi, and Dairalla6 in addition to one bread wheat variety (Ammon) were included in this study. Yield and yield components were significantly increased and the time required to anthesis and maturity were delayed by SI. PSI treatment significantly increased grain yield by 50.2%, while CSI increased yield by 121% as compared to the control treatment. Considerable variations among varieties were observed under different irrigation treatments. Sham1 (2266.7 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), Omqais (2253.3 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), and Acsad65 (1963.3 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) gave the highest grain yield under control treatment with low drought susceptibility indices, implying their low grain yield losses under control as compared with SI treatments with high genetic potentials for drought tolerance. The top-yielding varieties under CSI were Acsad65 (4716.7 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), Dairalla6 (4586.7 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), Bani Suef6 (4460 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), and Omqais (4360 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>). Under PSI, Sham1 (3303 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) followed by Dairalla6 (3193.3 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), Horani Nawawi (3130 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), and Bani Suef6 (3026.7 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) gave the highest grain yield. All yield components (number of kernels per spike, number of tillers, and grain size) significantly contributed to increasing grain yield under SI. In conclusion, SI under rainfed conditions improves yield-attributing traits, which led to a substantial increase in grain yield. It would be possible to increase GY by more than 3 and 4 tonnes ha<sup>-1</sup> with PSI and CSI, respectively.</p> Raeda Al-Mayta Adel H. Abdel-Ghani Saddam Aref Al-Dalain Mahmud Ayed Duwayri Copyright (c) 2023 2023-07-16 2023-07-16 19 2 105 124 10.35516/jjas.v19i2.1425 Arsenic in Drinking Water Resources in Six Cities Located in the Western Coastal Strip of Libya <p>Water used for drinking and food preparation is the most dangerous source of long-term human exposure to arsenic. The study aimed to identify arsenic level in samples of domestic groundwater, public water supply, bottled water, and water from purification shops in five locations along the coastal strip of Libya. The efficiency of removing arsenic in water by reverse osmosis (RO) unit in two water bottling plants was also investigated. Arsenic was analyzed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Results show that arsenic in domestic groundwater, public water supply systems, bottled water, and water from purifying shops range respectively:&nbsp; 6.06-70.48, 2.66-22.76, 1.20-11.20, 2.022-9.55 ug/L. The results revealed that 83% of groundwater samples and 5% of bottled water samples exceeded 10ug/l the maximum permissible level in drinking water by Libyan standards. Meanwhile, water samples from purifying shops are below 10ug/l. Public water supply samples from two sites contained arsenic &gt; 10ug/l. The RO unit is able to reduce arsenic in water by 75%, which means that arsenic in unpurified water should not exceed 35 ug/l. The study highly recommends that households who rely on domestic groundwater should install household RO units to be saved from the health risk of chronic arsenic exposure.</p> Tawfik M. Hassan Nuri Ibrahim ALamari Yousef Alsenusi ALmabsout Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-01 2023-03-01 19 2 69 80 10.35516/jjas.v19i1.1395 Yield Stability and Quality of Wheat (Triticum spp.) and Barley (Hordeum Vulgare) Populations Evolving under Different Microenvironments: A review <p style="text-align: justify;">Climate change, human population growth, human health and food security, safety, and sovereignty all demand that the role of biodiversity in plant breeding be revisited. From a biological standpoint, it is possible that populations of diverse plants developed by evolutionary plant breeding will be able to handle the majority of these major issues. Water stress and soil nutrient deficiency may have a negative impact on wheat (Triticum spp.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) yields and qualities. Drought-tolerant wheat cultivars with high yield and quality potential and improved grain protein content must be developed if food security is to be maintained. Wheat and barley (Triticum spp. and Hordeum vulgare, respectively) are the focus of this research, which aims to examine the stability of evolutionary populations (EPs) in the face of stressful and changeable settings. It's also important to look at how evolved populations stack up against improved varieties in terms of yield and its components. There has not been much progress in making wheat and barley more resistant to drought, especially in Jordan, where the problem is felt the most.</p> Amal Al-Khatib Omar Kafawin Stefania Grando Copyright (c) 2023 DSR Publishers/The University of Jordan. All Rights Reserved 2023-03-01 2023-03-01 19 2 89 104 10.35516/jjas.v19i1.1238