Can a Materialistic Philosophy Produce a Moral System? "Epicurean Model"
Keywords:Epicurus, Materialism, Ethics, Hilinistic Period, Metaphyesics
The main problem in this research was the answer to the question posed about the possibility of the existence of an ethical system based on a materialistic philosophy and not on an idealistic and metaphysical philosophy as was customary in establishing ethical systems. It has nothing to do with idealism or metaphysics. Rather, Democritus adopts the atomic materialist philosophy as its theoretical basis and does not depend on reason or divine laws as a criterion and judgment in moral issues, but rather nature, the sense of pleasure and the avoidance of pain as a spontaneous judgment of human and animal life alike. Herefore, this philosophy resorts to liberating man from the fear of death and the fear of the gods, so that this fear and anxiety do not spoil human life and deprive him of enjoying life itself. We have revealed in this research that the pleasure that the Epicureans are talking about is mainly the pleasure of the stomach, but it is not a reckless and exaggerated pleasure, but rather a pleasure that seeks simplicity and seeks to establish a calm life that is not disturbed by the pain resulting from the pursuit of more pleasures, the results of which are greater pain. The Greek philosopher Epicurus, who lived in the fourth century BC and a contemporary of both the Greek philosopher Aristotle and the philosopher Zeno, the founder of Stoicism that opposed his philosophical school, had established Epicureanism in Athens, Greece, to respond to the questions of the Greek public about the necessities of the historical stage and the decline of civilization after the death of AlexanderMacedonian in 324 BC.