Phytochemical Screening and in vitro Anti-urolithiatic Activity of Fruit-seed Extracts of Melia azedarach
Keywords:Melia azedarach, phytochemical analysis, anti-urolithiatic, aggregation assay, nucleation assay
Melia azedarach L. has been utilized in traditional systems of medicine for the treatment of various diseases including urolithiasis. The study aimed to perform phytochemical studies and anti-urolithiatic potential of fruit-seed extracts of Melia azedarach. Sequential extraction was performed using chloroform, methanol and water. The extracts of the plant were then subjected to quantitative tests for phytochemical analysis. An anti-urolithiatic activity was investigated via in vitro nucleation and aggregation assay using spectrophotometer. The preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of proteins (31.97 ± 0.56%), lipids (2.95 ± 0.03%) and carbohydrates (64.90 ± 0.56%). The chloroform extract contained the maximum quantity of polyphenols (77.65 ± 0.53 mg/g) and flavonoids (74.71 ± 0.67 mg/g). At a concentration of 5 mg/ml, the chloroform extract exhibited the maximum inhibitory activity in both aggregation and nucleation assay (55.85 ± 1.43%; 56.42 ± 4.49%) respectively. All extracts showed substantial anti-urolithiatic activity by inhibiting the crystallization of calcium oxalate. Due to presence of primary and secondary metabolites, the plant could serve as a source of useful drugs.
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