The Security Situation in Najd During the Twelfth Century AH / Eighteenth Century AD




Najd, Saudi State, Hijaz, Ashraf, Al-Ahsa.


Najdi society was formed of a mixture of the desert and settled areas, and despite their presence in the same area and their coexistence, the nature of each of them is different from the other, the Bedouin society used to constantly migrate in search of the resources and water that it needs in its life. Their lives were characterized by constant competition, frequent movement, and instability as a result of permanent conflicts in which the strong dominate the weak. Force remained the decisive factor in coexistence between the components of the local community in Najd. Several clashes and incidents arose between them, almost daily, which had a great impact on life there, and was a strong motive for the intervention of neighboring forces in its local affairs, in order to subjugate these tribes or secure trade routes and protect pilgrims. belonging to those forces. Najd was subjected to major campaigns by these two forces in the Hejaz and the eastern Arabian Peninsula, and these conflicts contributed to impeding the urban, economic and agricultural advancement through the large number of times when tribes interferred in the life of cities and villages, weakening or completely destroying them. This was followed by the emergence of the power of the first Saudi state in 1139 AH / 1727 AD as a political force, and the growth of its influence and dominance in the center of the Arabian Peninsula. The Saudi state, was able to restore the political balance in the region, and impose its prestige and presence on the internal forces in the region, and the forces surrounding it.

Author Biography

Maryam bint Khalaf Al-Otaibi, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University

Department of Social Sciences


al-Aḥsā’ī, Muḥammad (1982); Masterpiece of the Beneficiary on the History of al-Aḥsā’ in the Old and New, Riyadh: Maktabat al-Ma‘ārif.

‘Abd al-Ghanī, ‘Ārif (N.A.); History of the Princes of al-Madīnah al-Munawārah (1 H.-1417 H.), Damascus: Dār Kinān.

‘Abd al-Rahīm, ‘Abd al-Rahīm (1987); The First Saudi State 1158-1233 / 1745-1818 AD, Cairo: Dār al-Kitāb al-Jāmi‘ī.

al-‘Abūdī, Muḥammad (1990); al-Qassim Country Lexicon, al-Riyāḍ: al-Firazdaq.

al-‘Ajājī, Tahānī (2011); Fashion and Traditional Artifacts in the Desert of Najd, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Ph.D. Thesis, Princess Noura ibnat ‘Abd al-Raḥmān University, Riyadh.

al-‘Ajlānī, Munīr, History of the Country of Saudi Arabia, Part One, The First Saudi State (1413 AH / 1993 AD), Riyadh: Dār al-Shibl.

al-‘Arīnī, ‘Abd al-Raḥmān (1984); The Social Sife of the Desert of Najd and the Impact of the Salafi Call in it from the Tenth Century AH until the Fall of Diriyah 901-1233 A.H./ 1494-1818 A.D., unpublished Master’s thesis, Department of History, College of Arts, Imam Muḥammad ibn Sa‘ūd Islamic University,.

al-‘Arīnī, ‘Abd al-Raḥmān (1989); Social Life in the Settled Area of Najd from the Tenth Century AH until the Rise of the Call of Shaykh Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhāb 901-1157 A.H./ 1494-1744 A.D., unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Department of History, College of Arts, Imam Mulammad ibn Sa‘ūd Islamic University.

al-Bassām, ‘Abd Allāh (2015); The Gift of the Desirous in the News of Najd, Hijāz and Iraq, Aḥmad al-Bassām ed., Riyadh: Dārat al-Malik ‘Abd al-‘Azīz.

Blunt, Lady Anne (1978); A Journey to the Country of Najd, Muḥammad An‘am Ghalib trans., Riyadh: al-Yamāmah.

Burckhart, Johann (2005); Materials for the History of the Wahhabis, ‘Abd Allāh al-‘Uthaymīn ed., Riyadh: King Sa‘ūd University.

Daḥlān, Zaynī (1305 H.); Summary of Speech in the Statement of the Princes of the Sacred Land from the Time of Our Prophet (peace be upon him) to Our Time, edited by Abū ‘Abd Allāh al-Qāhirī, Egypt: al-Khayrīyah Press.

al-Fākhirī, Muḥammad (1999); History of al-Fākhirī, ‘Abd Allāh al-Shibl ed., Riyadh: Dārat al-Malik ‘Abd al-‘Azīz.

al-Ḥarbī, Fāyiz (2002); From the News of the Tribes in Najd during the Period (850-1300 H./1445-1883 A.D.), Riyadh: Dār al-Badrānī.

Ibn ‘Abbād, Muḥammad (1999); History of Ibn ‘Abbād, ‘Abd Allāh al-Shibl ed., Riyadh: Dārat al-Malik ‘Abd al-‘Azīz.

Ibn Bishr, ‘Uthmān, History of Najd, ‘Abd al-Raḥmān Āl al-Shaykh ed., Riyadh: Dārat al-Malik ‘Abd al-‘Azīz.

Ibn Duhaysh, Na‘īmah (2000); The Era of the Imām Muḥammad ibn Sa‘ūd (1139-1179 H./ 1727-1765 AD). Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, College of Sharia and Islamic Studies, Umm al-Qura University, Makkah al-Mukarramah, Saudi Arabia.

Ibn Ghannām, Ḥusayn (1994); The History of Najd., ed. Nāṣir al-Dīn al-Asad: Dār al-Shurūq.

Ibn Hadhlūl, Sa‘ūd (1961); History of the Kings of the Sa‘ūd Family, Riyadh: al-Riyāḍ Press.

Ibn ‘Isā, Ibrāhīm (1999); The History of Some Events in Najd, the Deaths of Some Notables and Their Lineage and the Construction of Some Countries from 700 to 1340 AH, Riyadh: Dārat al-Malik ‘Abd al-‘Azīz.

Ibn Junaydil, Sa‘d (1996); The Geographical Dictionary of the Country of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh: Alwān.

Ibn Khaldūn, ‘Abd al-Raḥmān (d 808H/ 1406 AD) (2014); Introduction, ‘Abd al-Wāḥid Wāfī ed., Cairo: House of Egypt’s Renaissance.

Ibn Khamīs, ‘Abd Allāh (1978); Lexicon of al-Yamāmah, Riyadh: al-Firazdaq.

Ibn Rabī‘ah, Muḥammad (1999); History of Ibn Rabī‘ah, ‘Abd Allāh al-Shibl ed., Riyadh: Dārat al-Malik ‘Abd al-‘Azīz.

Ibn Yūsuf, Muḥammad (1999); The History of Ibn Yūsuf, ‘Uwayḍah al-Juhanī ed., Riyadh: Dārat al-Malik ‘Abd al-‘Azīz.

al-Jāsir, Ḥamd (1981); The Geographical Dictionary “Eastern Arabian Peninsula”, Riyadh: al-Yamāmah.

al-Juhanī, ‘Uwayḍah (2016); Najd before Wahhabism, Iḥsān Zakī ed., Beirut: Jusūr.

al-Khuḍayrī, Muḥammad (1996); “Factors of Existence and Their Impact on the Conditions of the Population in the Country of Najd 1158-1309H. Study from Contemporary Najdi Sources”, al-Dārah Magazine, Riyadh, vol. 24, no. 2., Pp. 31-110.

al-Manqūr, Aḥmad (1999); The History of Shaykh Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad al-Manqūr, ‘Abd al-‘Azīz al-Khuwayṭir ed., Riyadh: Dārat al-Malik ‘Abd al-‘Azīz.

al-Muṭāwi‘, ‘Abd Allāh (2004); “Political and Social Transformations in Dar‘īyah 850-1157 A.H./ 1446-1744 A.D.”. Journal of King Saud University- al-Ādāb, vol. 16, no. 2, Pp: 409-441.

al-Qaḥṭānī, Muḥammad (2021); The Constitutional System of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh: King ‘Abd al-‘Azīz University.

al-Rīkī, Hasan (2005); The Glow of the Flame in the Biography of Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhāb, ‘Abd Allāh al-‘Uthaymīn ed., Riyadh: Dārat al-Malik ‘Abd al-‘Azīz.

al-Shibl, ‘Abd Allāh (1978); “The Call of Shaykh Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhāb”. al-Dārah Magazine, vol. 4, no. 4., Pp. 21-36.

al-‘Utaybī, Maryam (2012); al-Aḥsā’ and Qaṭīf During the Period of the Second Saudi State (1245-1288 AH / 1830-1871 AD), Beiru: Dār Jadāwil.

al-‘Utaybī, Maryam (2018); “The Security Situation in Najd in the Eleventh Hijri Century (Seventeenth Century AD)”, Mu’tah Magazine, Mu’tah University, (June Issue).

al-‘Uthaymīn, ‘Abd Allāh (1978); “Najd mundhu al-Qarn al-‘Āshr wa-Ḥata Ẓuhūr Da‘wat al-Shaykh Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhāb”. al-Dārah Magazine, vol. 4, no.1., Pp. 32-46.

al-‘Uthaymīn, ‘Abd Allāh (1997); History of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh: ‘Ubaykān Library.

al-Wahbī, ‘Abd al-Karīm (2014); Banū Khālid and Their Relationship to Najd 1080-1208 A.H./ 1669-1794 A.D., Riyadh: Dār Thaqīf.

al-Walī‘ī, ‘Abd Allāh (translation and commentary) (2014); Dictionary of Countries and Tribes in the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, Southern Jordan, and Sinai, Riyadh: Dārat al-Malik ‘Abd al-‘Azīz.

al-Ẓāhirī, Abū ‘Abd al-Raḥmān ibn ‘Uqayl (1983); Genealogy of the Ruling Families in al-Aḥsā’, Introduction by Ḥamd al-Jāsir, Riyadh: al-Yamāmah.

al-Zirkilī, Khayr al-Dīn (2002); The Notables, Beirut: Dār al-‘Ilm lil-Malālyīn.



How to Cite

Al-Otaibi, M. bint K. . (2023). The Security Situation in Najd During the Twelfth Century AH / Eighteenth Century AD. Jordan Journal for History and Archaeology, 17(1).